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Everything you wanted to ask about it but there wasn’t anybody to...

First of all, I want to tell you two the most important things about treated diamonds.

1. Their values are significantly less than the similar untreated stones and according to the rules of CIBJO and US Federal Trade Commission laws, the seller’s obligation is to disclose all kind of diamond treatments at the moment of sale.   And now we will proceed to the most important thing.

2.Most kinds of enhanced diamonds do not remain stable for a long period of time. There are 6 technics for color and clarity enhancement, but in my opinion only two of them deserve your engagment ring . We will help you understand, what kind of treated diamonds are recommended for purchase and what kind of treatments are better to avoid, to prevent possible disappointment.

So, let’s begin. Treating of the diamonds has a certain purpose - to improve the visual appearance and the beauty of the diamond by improving two parameters: Color and Clarity. Accordingly, all diamonds treatments can be divided into two groups: Color Enhancement and Clarity Enhancement.

I understand that it may be, all you need is just to choose the right stone and you may have no time at all, for gemological explanations. So, minutes before you possibly get bored of gemology, we will try to fix it. Without long prologue, we’ll start with recommended kinds of diamond treatments and then we will talk about the treatments which are better to avoid.
HPHT
The best treated diamond, you can purchase is Color Enhanced diamond by HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) technology.HPHT technic converts very rare Type IIa diamonds (only less than 1% of all diamonds contains no nitrogen) – from brownish colored to the colorless. How does it work? High Pressure High Temperature press is the kind of “oven”, like the one at your kitchen. The only difference is that it may weight like the battle tank (up to 60 ton), it heats the chamber to 1800ºC and keeps the pressure of 60000 atmospheres. Similar to the kitchen, imagine undercook potatoes. What is the problem with it? It may be good, but not eatable. How can you fix it? To boil it, until it’s fully cooked. Exactly the same we can perform to rare brownish Type IIa stones, that were slightly “undercook” by the nature? Their brown tints appearance is caused by slight plastic deformations in atomic lattice of the diamond. High Pressure and High Temperature repair and fix natural plastic deformations and convert brown stone to colorless, blue or pink. For the Type IaB and Type IIb diamonds it is possible to get Yellow and Blue colors and tints. Now please, pay attention, the treatment is eternal and undetectable even under very high magnification. The only way to detect HPHT treatment is by the use of a very sophisticated laboratory equipment.
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IRRADIATION TREATMENT
Next color enhancement treatment is recommended if you are looking for affordable Fancy Color diamonds. We are talking about Bombardment (Irradiation) treatment. Natural fancy colored diamonds are VERY rare. One carat natural Fancy Vivid Blue diamond costs about $1,500,000. Not everyone can afford such a high price. Here come natural diamond with artificially enhanced color, which allows to purchase beautiful Fancy Color diamond for affordable price. Bombardment is the only treatment process that exist in the nature as well as in the lab. Actually, all of the natural diamonds were exposed to natural radiation millions of years ago, to be considered as “irradiated” stones. Even today with nowadays technologies gemological laboratories find it difficult to differentiate the origin of green diamonds, if the color is natural or artificial. The nature of such stone until today is undetermined. The process of artificial changing colors by irradiation was developed in 1904 by British chemist Sir William Crookes. Since that time, irradiation technics has made significant progress. During the last decades, modern technology has improved the technics. Many problems of the past were solved: unstable color and uneven dispersion of colors. The transparency now is not so affected as once. Today, irradiation of the diamonds by electron rays with Van de Graaff generator allows us to get stable colors, homogenous, durable, not fading Fancy Colored diamonds for affordable prices.
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So, if you want to propose her beautiful Fancy Yellow, Pink, Blue, Green or Red diamond, Bombardier or Irradiated stone is the best option for you.
DIAMOND COATING
Color enhancement - Diamond Coating.Painting the diamonds with colors is the oldest technics.Semi - transparent blue or black coating substances on Pavilion (the bottom facets of the stone), helps neutralize the yellow tints of the diamond. It may improve the color in 3 to 4 grades up.For example, it may “upgrade” the color of the diamond from “N” color to “J”.Red semi-transparent paint on the pavilion makes low color diamonds appear attractive Fancy Pink hues. Yellow color on pavilion makes the same stone appear attractive Fancy Yellow. Regularly, coated diamonds set the inside the jewelry with “bezel” or “channel” setting, when only crown (upper, uncoated part) of the stone remains open. The coated (painted) part is “hidden” inside the metal. It helps prolongate the “life” period of the diamonds coating. Otherwise, the coated is easily damaged by the kitchen “chemistry”, easily scratched, or removed by acetylene. Anyway, in the course of time coating starts to peel and to fade away due to extended exposure to the UV rays of the sun. This kind of color treatment is not recommended for purchase.
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This kind of color treatment is not recommended for purchase.
LASER DRILLING
The first type of clarity enhancement is the Laser Drilling. The high-power laser beam can burn the tiny channel from dark and noticeable internal inclusion inside the diamond toward the surface. Open access to inclusion let the strong acids to reach inclusions through the burned channel inside the stone while procedure, called the “deep boiling”. As the result, bleached dark inclusion disappears or changes its color to white, that makes it less noticeable. In length of time, the fat, dirt and mineral salts in liquid condition might penetrate the drilled channel, making it more noticeable and requiring additional boiling to clean it.
In length of time, the fat, dirt and mineral salts in liquid condition might penetrate the drilled channel, making it more noticeable and requiring additional boiling to clean it.
INTERNAL LASER DRILLING
KM or Internal Laser Drilling. KM means “special drilling” in Hebrew, “kiduah miuhad”. If you want to ask: why is it necessary to invent another kind of laser drilling? Is regular laser drilling not enough to eliminate inclusion? The answer is simple. Laser Drilling makes good work, but it’s easily detectable, because of the drilled channel. Even regular jeweler is able to detect laser drilling, by the look from the side. Instead of it, KM works in a different way and sometimes it’s very difficult to detect this kind of treatment. Let’s see how it works. The unfocused laser beam heats the dark inclusion inside the diamond. The process of Inclusion's heating inside the diamond creates internal pressure. This process is similar to the process inside another kitchen appliance – the pressure cooker, with a small but a very important difference. There is no steam vent to release the pressure from inside the stone. So, the pressure finds itself the way out, breaking and splitting the diamond and as a result of creating the artificial fracture. Next step after the treating is deep boiling of the stone in strong acids, to dissolve the inclusion and the residues of burned carbon inside the fracture. In some cases, after the treatment, only professional gemologist is able to detect this kind of clarity enhancement. If the artificial fracture is not too wide, the dirt from outside will not penetrate the stone. Generally, the treatment is not bad, but it is mostly applied to very low clarity diamonds. So even after the treatment, the diamond remains non-attractive.
Generally, the treatment is not bad, but it is mostly applied to very low clarity diamonds. So even after the treatment, the diamond remains non-attractive.
FRACTULE FILLING
The third and the most popular method of clarity enhancement is Fracture Filling. The fracture inside the diamond stops the ray of light, traveling through the stone, like a barrier. The crack became lighted and as the result it is visually noticeable. How to make it “disappear” or less visible at least? One of the diamantaires discovered that fractures can be easily filled with glass. We also call it silicone or silicate also, but they are just different names for the same material. Filling with high refractive index glass makes fracture appear much less visible. Diamonds look much cleaner. This procedure can turn the unsellable I2 clarity diamond to desirable SI1. Under the normal condition, fracture filling is stable for some period of time. But it is easily damaged under the heat, pressure or acids environment of kitchen chemical cleaners, degreasers, removers, and descalers. The regular procedure of cleaning the jewelry set with fracture filled diamond, using regular jeweler’s devices and methods are not recommended. Ultrasonic, steamer or cleaning liquids will damage the filling. Over the time, due to extended exposure to the ultraviolets rays of the sun, the transparency of the filer inside the fractures deteriorates, it may dry out and appear milky or dirty. In this case, the filler should be removed and refilled with a new one.
Over the time, due to extended exposure to the ultraviolets rays of the sun, the transparency of the filer inside the fractures deteriorates, it may dry out and appear milky or dirty. In this case, the filler should be removed and refilled with a new one.
In Conclusion

It is up to every person to choose or not to choose clarity enhanced diamond for her ring, I am personally would not advise you to purchase clarity enhanced diamonds. If you wish to buy good stone and to save some money, I can recommend you to look for color enhanced HPHT treated stone, Bombardier or laboratory grown diamonds.

So, I hope these small secrets will help you make the right choice.
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